Bioactive compounds of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) cv. Golden Nugget and analysis of the in vitro functionality for hyperglycemia management

Jaime Ahumada, Claudia Fuentealba, José Antonio Olaeta, Pedro Undurraga, Romina Pedreschi, Kalidas Shetty, Rosana Chirinos, David Campos, Lena Gálvez-Ranilla


Loquat cultivar Golden Nugget (leaves, flowers and fruits) with potential commercial importance in Chile was analyzed for targeted bioactive composition (total phenolic contents: TPC, phenolic profiles and triterpenic acids) and in vitro bioactivity such as antioxidant capacity (AC) and inhibitory activity against enzymes relevant for hyperglycemia (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) and hypertension (angiotensin-I converting enzyme, ACE-I) management. Leaves and flowers had higher TPC and AC than fruits and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were found in all structures by HPLC. Chlorogenic acid and quercetin derivatives were detected only in leaves and flowers which also inhibited the α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes, but flowers showed the highest anti-hyperglycemia activity. No inhibition of ACE-I, and hyperglycemia-relevant enzymes were detected in loquat fruits; however, TPC and AC were high at green stage. Loquat leaves and flowers are sources of phenolic bioactives with potential for diet-based hyperglycemia management. No triterpenic acids were found in all loquat parts.

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